Martial Arts Training in China
Martial Arts Training in China:
Chinese martial arts, which are called kung fu or wushu are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common traits, identified as “families” of martial arts. Examples of such traits include physical exercises involving animal mimicry, or training methods inspired by Chinese philosophies, religions and legends. Styles that focus on qi manipulation are called internal while others that concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness are called “external” . Geographical association, as in northern and “southern, is another popular classification method.
Kung fu and wushu are loanwords from Chinese that, in English, are used to refer to Chinese martial arts. However, the Chinese terms kung-fu and wushu; Cantonese have distinct meanings. The Chinese equivalent of the term “Chinese martial arts” would be Zhongguo wushu .
In Chinese, the term kung fu refers to any skill that is acquired through learning or practice. It is a compound word composed of the words 功 (gōng) meaning “work”, “achievement”, or “merit”, and 夫 (fū) which is a particle or nominal suffix with diverse meanings.
Wǔshù literally means “martial art”. It is formed from the two words (wǔ), meaning “martial” or “military” and 術 (shù), which translates into “discipline”, “skill” or “method”. The term wushu has also become the name for the modern sport of wushu, an exhibition and full-contact sport of bare-handed and weapons forms , adapted and judged to a set of aesthetic criteria for points developed since 1949 in the People’s Republic of China.
Quan fa (拳法) is another Chinese term for Chinese martial arts. It means “fist principles” or “the law of the fist” (quan means “boxing” or “fist” [literally, curled hand], and fameans “law”, “way” or “study”). The name of the Japanese martial art Kenpō is represented by the same characters.
The genesis of Chinese martial arts has been attributed to the need for self-defense, hunting techniques and military training in ancient China. Hand-to-hand combat and weapons practice were important in training ancient Chinese Soldiers. Detailed knowledge about the state and development of Chinese martial arts became available from the Nanjing decade (1928–1937), as the Central Guoshu Institute established by the Kuomintang regime made an effort to compile an encyclopedic survey of martial arts schools. Since the 1950s, the People’s Republic of China has organized Chinese martial arts as an exhibition and full-contact sport under the heading of Wushu.